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From the Journal of Archaeological Science


Ian C. Freestone, Ruth E. Jackson-Tal, Itamar Taxel, Oren Tal, Glass production at an Early Islamic workshop in Tel Aviv, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62, October 2015, Pages 45-54, ISSN 0305-4403, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.07.003.
( http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440315002253 ) 
Abstract: 


A refuse deposit at HaGolan Street, Khirbet al-Ḥadra, northeastern Tel Aviv, is rich in debris deriving from an Islamic period glass workshop, dating to the 7th–8th centuries. Twenty-four samples of glass vessels, chunks and moils were analysed by electron microprobe. Glass used in the workshop derives from three primary sources: Egypt II, somewhere in inland Egypt, Beth Eli'ezer, near Hadera, Israel and a third group which appears to represent a previously unknown Levantine primary production centre. Glass corresponding to at least twelve production events has been identified. While vessels made of Beth Eli'ezer and Egypt II glass have previously been reported from the same context, this is the first time that they have been related to the products of a single workshop. It appears that glass from both primary production centres was available in the later 8th century, and that the glass workers at HaGolan St were obliged to balance the high working and fuel costs of the stiff low-soda Levantine glass against the better working properties but higher raw material costs of the high-soda glass from Egypt.





Filomena Gallo, Alberta Silvestri, Patrick Degryse, Monica Ganio, Antonio Longinelli, Gianmario Molin, Roman and late-Roman glass from north-eastern Italy: The isotopic perspective to provenance its raw materials, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62, October 2015, Pages 55-65, ISSN 0305-4403, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.07.004.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440315002265)
Abstract: 



Abstract
In this study, the strontium, neodymium and oxygen isotopic composition of Roman (1st–3rd century AD) and late-Roman glass (4th–6th century AD) from Adria and Aquileia, two of the most important archaeological sites of north-eastern Italy, is discussed....



Sarah Paynter, Thérèse Kearns, Hilary Cool, Simon Chenery, Roman coloured glass in the Western provinces: The glass cakes and tesserae from West Clacton in England, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62, October 2015, Pages 66-81, ISSN 0305-4403, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.07.006.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440315002289)
Abstract: 


A collection of tesserae and two fragments from rounded cakes of coloured glass, probably dating to the 2nd century AD, were found at West Clacton Reservoir, Essex, in the UK, by Colchester Archaeological Trust. A selection of the finds were analysed using SEM-EDS and ICP-MS. This paper provides data on the composition of the different glass colours and discusses how each colour was made. Colourants and opacifiers were added to a base glass, most often one of the transparent, naturally coloured (blue-green) natron glass types widely available at the time, but there appear to be preferences in the type of base glass used for certain colours, which affects the type of antimonate opacifier precipitated. Possible reasons for using different types of base glass to make strongly coloured Roman glass are discussed.




Catherine M. Batt, Magdalena M.E. Schmid, Orri Vésteinsson, Constructing chronologies in Viking Age Iceland: Increasing dating resolution using Bayesian approaches, Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 62, October 2015, Pages 161-174, ISSN 0305-4403, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jas.2015.07.002.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440315002241)
Abstract: 



Precise chronologies underpin all aspects of archaeological interpretation and, in addition to improvements in scientific dating methods themselves, one of the most exciting recent developments has been the use of Bayesian statistical analysis to reinterpret existing information. Such approaches allow the integration of scientific dates, stratigraphy and typological data to provide chronologies with improved precision.

Settlement period sites in Iceland offer excellent opportunities to explore this approach, as many benefit from dated tephra layers and AMS radiocarbon dates. Whilst tephrochronology is widely used and can provide excellent chronological control, this method has limitations; the time span between tephra layers can be large and they are not always present. In order to investigate the improved precision available by integrating the scientific dates with the associated archaeological stratigraphy within a Bayesian framework, this research reanalyses the dating evidence from three recent large scale excavations of key Viking Age and medieval sites in Iceland; Aðalstræti, Hofstaðir and Sveigakot. The approach provides improved chronological precision for the dating of significant events within these sites, allowing a more nuanced understanding of occupation and abandonment. It also demonstrates the potential of incorporating dated typologies into chronological models and the use of models to propose sequences of activities where stratigraphic relationships are missing. Such outcomes have considerable potential in interpreting the archaeology of Iceland and can be applied more widely to sites with similar chronological constraints.
Keywords: Iceland; Viking Age; Chronology; Radiocarbon dating; Bayesian statistics; Tephra




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